InstaLinks :  assist you to assume past the problem however related to the problem from UPSC prelims and Mains examination standpoint. Those linkages supplied on this ‘trace’ layout assist you to body imaginable questions to your thoughts that would possibly stand up(or an examiner would possibly consider) from every present tournament. InstaLinks additionally attach each factor to their static or theoretical background. This is helping you find out about a subject holistically and upload new dimensions to each present tournament that can assist you assume analytically


Desk of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

1. How are disputes between states resolved in India?

2. Far flung vote casting for migrant employees: The plan the Election Fee of India (EC) has defined

3. Delegated regulation will have to no longer trip past the purview of the dad or mum act: SC


GS Paper 3:

1. No motion plan by means of MoEF&CC to care for plastic waste unearths CAG

2. The Webb telescope is simply getting began


Content material for Mains Enrichment

1. How India can produce firms like Apple, Google, Pfizer


Information for Prelims

1. Sammakka Saralamma Jatara

2. Land Subsidence

3. Mango flowering

4. Venture Nilgiri Tahr

5. Prahari App



How are disputes between states resolved in India?

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Purposes and obligations of the Union and the States, problems and demanding situations bearing on the federal construction


Supply: IE


Course: The thing explores other the best way to get to the bottom of inter-state boundary disputes. It additionally in short covers the border dispute between Maharashtra and Karnataka.


Context: Because the border dispute between Maharashtra and Karnataka (over Belagavi, Karwar and Nipani in North Karnataka) is intensifying, the object highlights formal strategies within the Charter of India to get to the bottom of inter-state disputes.



  • Regularly, makes an attempt are made to get to the bottom of inter-state disputes with the cooperation of all sides, with the Centre operating as a facilitator or a impartial mediator.
  • This was once adopted by means of Parliament bringing a regulation to vary state obstacles, such because the Bihar-Uttar Pradesh (Alteration of Obstacles) Act of 1968 and the Haryana-Uttar Pradesh (Alteration of Obstacles) Act of 1979.



Strategies to be had to get to the bottom of inter-state disputes:


Judicial redressal:

  • Article 131: Excellent Court docket has the authentic jurisdiction in any dispute between –
    • The Govt of India and a number of States; or
    • The Govt of India and any State or States on one aspect and a number of different States at the different; or
    • Two or extra States,
  • If the dispute comes to any query (whether or not of regulation or reality) on which the life or extent of a prison proper is dependent.
  • Exemption: The mentioned jurisdiction shall no longer prolong to a dispute bobbing up out of any treaty, settlement, covenant, or engagement, having been entered into or completed sooner than the graduation of this Charter.



Inter-state Council:

  • Inter-State and Zonal councils’ function in resolving inter-state disputes has been coated in a contemporary article which may also be accessed thru this hyperlink.

The Maharashtra-Karnataka border dispute:

  • When state obstacles had been redrawn on linguistic traces as in step with the States Reorganisation Act of 1956, Belagavi turned into a part of the erstwhile Mysore state.
  • Maharashtra claims that portions of Belagavi, the place Marathi is the dominant language, will have to stay in Maharashtra.
  • In 1966, the Centre arrange the Mahajan Fee, to get to the bottom of the border dispute in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala.
  • The Fee beneficial that Belgaum and 247 villages stay with Karnataka. Maharashtra rejected the file and moved the SC in 2004.
  • The Union House Minister met the Leader Ministers of each states and requested them to shape a six-member workforce, comprising 3 ministers from every aspect, to handle all boundary problems.
  • Then again, each states hardened their stance passing a unanimous answer to improve a prison fight to get to the bottom of the dispute.


Different inter-state disputes in India: There are border disputes most commonly bobbing up out of claims and counter-claims over territories between Assam-Meghalaya; Assam-Nagaland; Assam-Mizoram; Assam-Arunachal Pradesh and Maharashtra-Karnataka.


Insta Hyperlinks:

The Belagavi border dispute between Maharashtra and Karnataka


Mains Hyperlinks:

Q. How a ways do you assume cooperation, pageant and disagreement have formed the character of the federation of India? Cite some contemporary examples to validate your resolution. (UPSC 2020)


Prelims Hyperlinks: (UPSC 2014)

The facility of the Excellent Court docket of India to come to a decision disputes between the Centre and the States falls beneath its

(a) advisory jurisdiction

(b) appellate jurisdiction

(c) authentic jurisdiction

(d) writ jurisdiction

Ans: c

Far flung vote casting for migrant employees: The plan the Election Fee of India (EC) has defined

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Powers, Purposes and Obligations of quite a lot of Constitutional Our bodies


Supply: IE


Course: The thing covers Multi-Constituency Far flung Digital Vote casting Gadget (RVM) – want, distinctive options, the vote casting procedure and problems raised by means of the EC itself.


Context: The EC introduced that it has evolved a prototype for a Multi-Constituency Far flung Digital Vote casting Gadget (RVM), amid considerations over migration-based disenfranchisement, to spice up voter turnout and enhance India’s democratic procedure.


Background – The issue of migration-based disenfranchisement:

  • Whilst registered electorate don’t finally end up vote casting for various causes, home migration – is pushed by means of marriage, herbal screw ups, employment, and so forth.
  • As in step with the 2011 census, there are just about 45.36 crores (forty-five level 3 six) migrants in India (each intra and interstate) – just about 37% of the rustic’s inhabitants.
  • Those migrants are not able to trip to vote, denying a big chew of the inhabitants its franchise, going in opposition to the EC’s motto – “No voter left at the back of”.
  • The EC had shaped a Committee of Officials on Home Migrants, which beneficial (in 2016) web vote casting, proxy vote casting, early vote casting and postal ballots for migrant employees (rejected because of considerations like loss of secrecy of the vote, the loss of sanctity of 1 particular person one vote concept, problems with accessibility, and so forth.)
  • Thus, a technological answer was once proposed which permits electorate to vote remotely, in a secure and regulated atmosphere.



The proposed answer – Far flung EVMs:

  • RVMs had been evolved by means of Bharat Electronics Restricted (BEL) and the Electronics Company of India Restricted (ECIL).
  • The RVMs are stand-alone, non-networked programs, permitting electorate from a couple of constituencies to vote the use of the similar system.
  • They are going to be arrange in far off places outdoor the state beneath an identical prerequisites as present polling cubicles.

Distinctive characteristic of RVMs:

  • A unmarried Far flung Poll Unit (RBU): To cater to a couple of constituencies (as many as 72) by means of the use of a “dynamic poll show board” as a substitute of the in most cases published paper poll sheet on EVMs.
  • Poll Unit Overlay Show (BUOD): It is going to display the needful applicants according to the constituency quantity learn at the voter’s Constituency card, which may also be learn by means of a barcode scanning machine.



The vote casting procedure:

  • After verifying a voter’s id, their constituency card can be learn with a public show appearing the constituency main points and applicants.
  • This can also be displayed privately (at the BUOD within the RVM’s RBU) and the voter will then vote and every vote can be saved constituency-wise within the keep an eye on unit.
  • The voter-verifiable paper audit path (VVPAT) machine is predicted to paintings alongside the similar traces as the brand new era.




  • The machine has problems, a few of which the EC has itself stated. As an example,
    • Migrants aren’t a uniform and outlined category, with fluid identities, places and eventualities.
    • As quite a lot of international locations reject EVMs for paper-based ballots, this transfer will have the prospective to lift additional questions at the sanctity of the electoral procedure itself.
    • Far flung vote casting can theoretically supply an added edge to larger events and richer applicants who can marketing campaign around the constituency and past.



Method forward:

Resolving those problems would require wider consultations with quite a lot of prison and political stakeholders.


Conclusion: The EC has invited all recognised 8 nationwide and 57 state political events on January 16 to exhibit the functioning of the RVM and has requested for his or her written perspectives by means of January 31.


Insta Hyperlinks: VVPAT


Mains Hyperlinks:

Q. Within the mild of latest controversy relating to the usage of Digital Vote casting Machines (EVM), what are the demanding situations sooner than the Election Fee of India to verify the trustworthiness of elections in India? (UPSC 2018)


Prelims Hyperlinks: (UPSC 2017)

Imagine the next statements:

  1. The Election Fee of India is a five-member frame.
  2. The Union Ministry of House Affairs comes to a decision the election agenda for the habits of each basic elections and bye-elections.
  3. Election Fee resolves the disputes on the subject of splits/mergers of recognised political events.

Which of the statements given above is/are proper?

      1. 1 and a pair of handiest
      2. 2 handiest
      3. 2 and three handiest
      4. 3 handiest


Ans: 4

Delegated regulation will have to no longer trip past the purview of the dad or mum act: SC

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Parliament and State legislatures – construction, functioning, the habits of commercial, powers & privileges and problems bobbing up out of those


Supply: TH


Course: The thing tries to give an explanation for the which means of delegated regulation, its benefits, grievance, and so forth., within the context of the new SC ruling.


Context: The Excellent Court docket dominated that delegated regulation, together with laws and laws enacted by means of state and central governments, will have to complement relatively than change the parliamentary statute from which it derives energy.



  • An enchantment was once filed by means of the Kerala State Electrical energy Board in opposition to a State HC judgement upholding Legislation 153(15) of the Kerala Electrical energy Provide Code, 2014.
  • Legislation 153(15) of the Code mentioned that an ‘unauthorised further load’ in the similar premises and beneath the similar tariff will have to no longer be counted as ‘unauthorised use of electrical energy’.



The SC’s verdict:

  • It reversed the HC choice and held that the Legislation was once inconsistent with Phase 126(6) of the Electrical energy Act, 2003.
  • Phase 126 of the 2003 Act was once enacted with a selected objective to limit such unauthorised intake of electrical energy.



Observations made by means of the SC within the above judgement:

  • Overdrawing electrical energy is damaging to the general public at massive, because it impacts the potency, and efficacy of all the provide machine, even expanding voltage fluctuations.
  • If a rule is going past or replaces the rule-making energy conferred by means of the dad or mum statute, the similar must be declared invalid.
  • Delegated regulation will have to no longer trip past the purview of the dad or mum Act. If it does, it’s extremely vires and can’t be given any impact.
  • A designated energy to legislate by means of making laws or laws can’t convey into life substantive rights, duties or disabilities no longer pondered by means of the provisions of the dad or mum statute.
  • A frame making laws or laws has no inherent energy of its personal to make laws however derives such energy handiest from the statute.
    • Therefore, it has to essentially serve as throughout the purview of the statute.



The delegated/secondary/subordinate regulation:


That means:

  • It’s the regulation established by means of the chief the use of the government granted to them by means of the dad or mum act with a purpose to enforce and administer the principle regulation’s necessities.
  • Even though the concept that of delegated regulation was once no longer discussed in particular within the Indian Charter it may be understood by means of decoding Article 312.
  • This Article provides the proper to the Rajya Sabha to open a brand new department of All India Provider with a majority of two-thirds majority vote and delegate some powers to the brand new recruiter – All India Provider.
  • There are lots of such circumstances by which delegated regulation beneath the Charter of India may also be understood.


Benefits of delegated regulation:

  • It saves time for the legislature.
  • It may be simply achieved in session with the events affected.
  • It lets in for flexibility.
  • Professional regulation.
  • Parliament isn’t at all times in consultation.
  • Resorted to in case of emergencies.
  • It may be used on an experimental foundation.





  • Weakens legislative keep an eye on over the chief.
  • The manager has turn into extra tough and has encroached upon the area of legislature.
  • The department between law-making and implementation will get blurred (in opposition to the idea of separations of energy).
  • Imaginable misuse for political beneficial properties (regulation to learn the ruling birthday celebration).
  • Lacks rigorous dialogue sooner than regulation making.
  • Delegated regulation adjustments with political adjustments leading to political and management instability.
  • On occasion it’s not in conformity with the rule of thumb of regulation.





  • Delegated regulation is vital, and is more likely to build up in quantity, in view of the complicated social organisation and huge developmental and promotional actions.
  • Due to this fact, some safeguards and controls (courts’ jurisdiction will have to no longer be restricted, uniform procedures, and so forth) are vital and fascinating.




Mains Hyperlinks:

Q. What’s Delegated Law? Provide the contradicting perspectives about delegation of energy to legislate whilst comparing its execs and cons. (250 phrases)

(no identify)

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Atmosphere Conservation

Supply: DTE

Context: As in step with the new audit by means of CAG of MoEF&CC, it was once discovered that the ministry has a mechanism  to evaluate the era of plastic waste, however none for its assortment and secure disposal



Key findings of the CAG file:

  • MoEF&CC has no motion plan leading to useless implementation of Plastic Waste Control (PWM) Laws, 2016
  • Efficient coordination between a number of air pollution keep an eye on forums (Central and State) and the ministry is missing
  • Loss of uniform approach of overview of plastic waste era inside of a state
  • The problem with the Laws: The Plastic Waste Control Laws framed by means of MoEF&CC lack comprehensiveness to offer thrust to efficient implementation and tracking



Movements taken for plastic waste

Technique by means of MoEF&CC for plastic waste keep an eye on:

  • Behavioural alternate
  • Strengthening of the institutional machine for the gathering
  • Segregation and recycling of plastic waste
  • Engagement with manufacturers, importers and logo homeowners thru Prolonged Manufacturer Accountability
  • Banning of SUP from July 1st this yr (2022)


How are different international locations coping with single-use plastic?

  • Consensus on SUP in UN: This yr, 124 international locations, events to the United Countries Atmosphere Meeting, together with India, signed a answer to attract up an settlement which can sooner or later make it legally binding for the signatories to handle the overall lifetime of plastics from manufacturing to disposal, to finish plastic air pollution.
    • 68 international locations have plastic bag bans with various levels of enforcement
  • Bangladesh: Bangladesh turned into the primary nation to ban skinny plastic baggage in 2002.
  • China: China issued a ban on plastic baggage in 2020 with a phased implementation.
  • EU: EU bans positive single-use plastics for which possible choices are to be had.

CPCB is a statutory organisation which was once constituted in September 1974 beneath the Water (Prevention and Keep an eye on of Air pollution) Act, 1974.

  • It was once entrusted with the powers and purposes beneath the Air (Prevention and Keep an eye on of Air pollution) Act, 1981.
  • It serves as a box formation and in addition supplies technical services and products to the Ministry of Atmosphere and Forests beneath the provisions of the Atmosphere (Coverage) Act, 1986.

Essential purposes:

  • to advertise the cleanliness of streams and wells in several spaces of the States by means of prevention, keep an eye on and abatement of water air pollution.
  • to toughen the standard of air and to stop, keep an eye on or hamper air air pollution within the nation.

Insta Hyperlinks:


Mains Hyperlink:

Q. What’s single-use plastic and what are the worries related to it? How can or not it’s effectively phased out within the nation? (15M)


Prelims Hyperlink:

Hyperlink it with how are plastic produced. Acts governing its use.

  1. Bisphenol A (BPA), a motive of shock, is a structural/key part within the manufacture of which of the next types of plastics? (UPSC 2021)

(a) Low-density polyethylene

(b) Polycarbonate

(c) Polyethylene terephthalate

(d) Polyvinyl chloride

Solution: B

BPA stands for bisphenol A, an business chemical that has been used to be sure plastics and resins because the Fifties. BPA is located in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastics are steadily utilized in packing containers that retailer meals and drinks, similar to water bottles.


  1. Triclosan regarded as damaging when uncovered to prime ranges for a very long time, is in all probability provide wherein of the next? (UPSC 2021)

(a) Meals preservatives

(b) Fruit-ripening elements

(c) Reused plastic packing containers

(d) Toiletries

Solution: D

Triclosan is an antibacterial and antifungal agent found in some client merchandise, together with toothpaste, soaps, detergents, toiletries toys, and surgical cleansing remedies

The Webb telescope is simply getting began

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Area Generation

Supply: Indian Specific


Context: It was once introduced twelve months in the past on a undertaking to look at the universe in wavelengths no human eye can see. With a number one replicate 21 ft extensive, the Webb is seven instances as tough because the Hubble Area Telescope, its predecessor.


About James Webb Telescope:

  • James Webb Telescope is an global collaboration between NASA, Eu Area Company (ESA), and the Canadian Area Company.
  • The telescope makes use of infrared mild, which can’t be perceived by means of the human eye, to check each segment in cosmic historical past.


Venture targets:

  • It is going to lend a hand in a huge vary of investigations around the fields of astronomy and cosmology.
  • It is going to lend a hand to perceive the origins of the universe, the evolution of our personal Sun Gadget, and seek for indicators of existence on far off planets.
  • It might additionally analyze the atmospheres of exoplanets that cross in entrance in their stars.
  • It is going to take a look at numerous issues within the universe together with icy moons, far away exoplanets and galaxy clusters.


For a Comparability between James Webb and Hubble telescopes, please click on right here


Portions of JWST (supply: NASA):



Insta Hyperlinks:

James Webb Area Telescope

Mains Hyperlink:

Q. Evaluate and distinction James Webb Telescope with that of the Hubble Telescope. What insights can James Webb Telescope be offering about our previous?


Content material for Mains Enrichment:

How India can produce firms like Apple, Google, Pfizer

Supply: Are living Mint

Course: The tips given may also be written as the way in which ahead in GS solutions.


Context: Zoho CEO Sridhar Vembu in a Twitter thread has defined how can India produce globally aggressive firms like Apple, Google, Pfizer, Samsung, Honda, Boeing, Siemens, TSMC or Huawei.


What will have to be the focal point?

  • The complex expertise and R & D functions crucial for contemporary existence and nationhood are understood by means of those firms. Most crucial R & D occurs inside of such firms
  • For India to construct such firms, the Indian personal sector will have to put money into R & D closely. Commercial R&D isn’t the similar as instructional analysis.
  • We will have to center of attention on construction a supportive ecosystem for generating world-class {Hardware} firms.


Information for Prelims:

Sammakka Saralamma Jatara

Supply: The Hindu

Context: Sammakka Saralamma jatara ( the largest tribal competition in India and a pair ofnd biggest truthful after Kumbh Mela) is the four-day biennial Medaram jatara which was once held in Mulugu district in February (Telangana) this yr.


Land Subsidence

Supply: Hindustan Occasions

Context: The city of Joshimath (Uttrakhand) has been sinking for many years ( first highlighted by means of the 1976 state government-appointed Mishra Fee file)

  • Knowledgeable panel (arrange by means of the Uttarakhand authorities) has now showed that structural defects in Joshimath had been led to by means of Land subsidence.
  • Affect: The higher Land subsidence up to now two years has led to cracks in houses, rendering them volatile and prompting other people to escape.


Causes for landslides in Joshimath:

  • The city is located within the outdated landslide zone and is as regards to the tectonic discontinuities within the Himalayas
  • Anthropogenic pressures: Roads, heavy tourism, and structures of dams, are greater than the sporting capability of the geology of where.



About Joshimath:

  • The city of Joshimath ( in Chamoli district) has been a centre of religion, and a non secular getaway within the mighty Himalayas.
  • Situated on Nationwide Freeway 7, at a peak of 6,150 ft, it’s the doorway to the holy shrines of Badrinath (a part of Char Dhams) and Hemkund Saheb (a holy Sikh Shrine), and the picturesque Valley of Plants (a UNESCO global heritage web site), and Auli (a well-liked vacationer vacation spot).
  • Strategic importance: It’s house to the Joshimath Cantonment, the everlasting station of the Garwhal Scouts, as regards to the Indo-Tibetan Border.



What’s land subsidence?

Land subsidence is a steady settling or unexpected sinking of the Earth’s floor because of the removing or displacement of subsurface earth fabrics.



Mango flowering

Supply: DTE

Context: Mango flowering has began because the 3rd week of December in Telangana and Odisha, which is no less than a month quicker than the standard duration of flowering. 

Causes for early flowering:

  • Unseasonal rainfall and a warmer-than-normal iciness

Mango bathe:

  • Mango showers is a colloquial time period to explain the incidence of pre-monsoon rainfall.


  • In India, mango showers happen because the results of thunderstorm building over the Bay of Bengal.
  • They’re often referred to as ‘Kaal Baisakhi’ in Bengal, as Bordoisila in Assam and as Cherry Blossom showers or Espresso Showers in Karnataka.
  • They lend a hand within the early ripening of mangoes and are therefore steadily known as “Mango showers.”




Venture Nilgiri Tahr

Supply: Industry Line

Context: India’s first Nilgiri Tahr challenge to preserve the State animal of Tamil Nadu can be taken up.


Parts of the challenge: The challenge could have 9 elements, together with bi-annual synchronised surveys around the department, analysis and remedy for affected people and a Shola grassland recovery pilot in Higher Bhavani,


Prahari App

Supply: PIB

Context: Union House and Cooperation Minister Shri Amit Shah introduced the Border Safety Power (BSF) cell app ‘Prahari’.


‘Prahari’ in Hindi way ‘a guard’: A guard is any individual similar to a soldier or jail officer who’s guarding a selected position or particular person.


Significance of the app:

  • Jawans can get private and service-related data, housing, Ayushman-CAPF and go away connected data on their cell phones.
  • BSF Jawans too can get GPF, Bio Knowledge or complaint redressal at the “Centralized Public Complaint Redress and Tracking Gadget” (CP-GRAMS) or data on quite a lot of welfare schemes in the course of the app.
  • This app may also attach them with the portal of the Ministry of House Affairs


About BSF:

The Border Safety Power is India’s border guarding organisation on its border with Pakistan and Bangladesh based on 1st December 1965 by means of Khusro Faramurz Rustamji

The Border Safety Power has been awarded a lot of gallantry awards together with one Mahavir Chakra, 4 Kirti Chakras, 13 Vir Chakras and 13 Shaurya Chakras, BSF has fought such a lot of battles with valour {that a} e-book might be written on every struggle

Sign up for our Reputable Telegram Channel HERE

Please subscribe to Our podcast channel HERE

Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE

Observe our Twitter Account HERE

Observe our Instagram ID HERE  .

Observe us on LinkedIn : HERE


What do you think?

Written by worklifecoach

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

GIPHY App Key not set. Please check settings

Going past knowledge control and analytics functions, CIO Information, ET CIO

Acacia Pronounces Inside Investigation into Former CEO’s Obvious Misconduct and Releases Initial Findings